An initial rapid environmental assessment (REA) is conducted prior to site selection. This should include an initial biomass survey.
Environmental national authorities' guidelines, or any approved available guidelines, are taken into consideration for assessment, plans and implementation of activities and initiatives related to environmental protection.
Further surveys or plans are established for a more thorough environmental assessment once the emergency phase has passed.
The person or team of people to carry out the assessments are selected.
Environmentally sensitive or protected areas around the camp are known and mapped.
The main environmental management issues and priorities are identified in and around the camp.
National authorities and lead Cluster/Sector agencies are consulted to verify that the camp site and environmental priorities are those endorsed by their department/agency.
Environmental requirements and resources to be protected are verified with neighbouring or host communities.
Information is communicated to all key stakeholders.
Relocation plans are prepared for those who need to be moved in order to protect critical natural resources.
Camp layout designers consider land contours to minimise erosion.
The camp layout considers maintaining as much existing vegetation cover as possible to reduce risks of erosion.
A CEAP covering the camp and surrounding communities is developed and implemented.
Standards and indicators for environmental monitoring are discussed and established as part of the CEAP.
All relevant programmes initiated in the camp contain an environmental awareness-raising component.
The camp staff, host community, community leaders and committees are trained in, or otherwise informed of, matters related to environmental protection and the negative effects of poor environmental planning.
Environmental committees are formed.
Shelter materials, especially timber, including those brought from other areas, are from sustainable sources.
The collection of materials required for construction of shelter is managed to ensure sustainable use of local resources.
The implications of mass production of shelter materials are considered, such as water requirements for manufacture of mud bricks/concrete.
Natural materials are harvested at the right time of the year to ensure sustainability of future harvests.
Water and Sanitation
Existing water sources and ground water are protected from contamination from livestock, latrines, clothes washing, bathing areas, rubbish pits and burial grounds.
Four guidelines (Reduce water consumption! Rainwater harvesting! Recycling water! Restore the natural water cycle!) are adopted.
Groundwater sources are used appropriately/sustainably to prevent long-term damage such as salinisation or aquifer depletion.
Latrines are appropriately sited and constructed to ensure that they do not pollute groundwater or the surrounding area.
Mechanisms are in place to empty latrines and dispose waste appropriately, away from the site.
Latrine and waste facilities are safely decommissioned once full.
A solid waste management system and strategy are in place, which includes recycling and composting.
Composting is promoted as a means to improve the fertility of garden/agricultural plots.
Solid waste, including medical waste, is disposed of properly both on and off-site.
Solid waste pits are appropriately sited and constructed to ensure that they do not pollute groundwater or the surrounding area.
Clearly demarcated burial sites are sited to ensure that they do not pollute groundwater or the surrounding area.
Appropriate drainage/bunds are constructed to reduce surface water runoff and erosion.
Non-chemical physical methods of vector control are considered.
If livestock are present, there is sufficient grazing and fodder available to feed them locally.
Surrounding areas are accessible and appropriate for grazing.
Grazing rights are arranged with the host community.
Separate watering points are established for livestock.
Organic farming practices are encouraged for cultivation in and around the camp.
Locally appropriate crop species are encouraged.
Composting and crop rotation are encouraged to maintain soil fertility.
Periodic household assessments are conducted of the amount of fuelwood (or other energy sources) needed and being harvested.
Alternative sources of domestic energy are identified and promoted.
Fuel-efficient cooking methods are promoted.
Protection concerns related to fuelwood collection are identified and dealt with.
Alternative strategies are developed to ensure both protection of camp residents and natural resource conservation.
Lighting systems, either at the household level or around priority facilities such as latrines or washing blocks, should be provided and maintained.
Plans are established for programmes to reduce environmental impacts, such as nurseries for future provision of fuelwood.
Projects are put in place to rehabilitate the camp once people return home.
Implementing agencies and national authorities have funds available for the clearing/decommissioning of the camp.
Plans are drawn up, and agreed in advance, regarding any intended future use of the camp site and existing infrastructure.
Reputable organisations and institutions are identified to rehabilitate the site and remove potential contaminants and physical dangers.
The host community is consulted about rehabilitation of the camp area and site.
Tree planting schemes are appropriately funded for an adequate time period.